Sample preparation for ESCA

Main uses: Determinations of elemental and chemical state compositions
Range of elements: All except hydrogen and helium
Destructive:

Not generally, some beam damage to X-ray sensitive materials
A handbook on X-ray damage for a wide range of polymers is available
Chemical state: Yes
Sample:


All vacuum-compatible materials;
flat samples best;
size accepted depends on particular measurement
Depth probed: 5-50 Angstroms